How do you validate the dose rate of the RS 2000?

Before shipment from the factory and again at time of install, we use a Rad Cal Real-Time, In-Chamber dosimeter that is certified annually to NIST Standards.  We recommend each institution also purchase one of these devices, which is completely independent of the RS 2000 for quick and easy QC validation. It takes less than 5 minutes to validate a dose rate.  The Rad Cal Accu-Dose is also ideal for targeted tumor work or for knowing exactly what the dose rate is to a specific target area.


What variable dose rates are available on the RS 2000?

The RS 2000 is capable of very low dose rates down to 11 cGy/min all the way up to over 15 Gy/min unfiltered.


What specific features of the RS 2000 differentiate it from other X-ray irradiators?

-The ease of use is the biggest advantage: simple product placement for dose rate, enter the appropriate time and press start.

-Only the RS 2000 has the patented RAD+ reflective chamber to allow and guarantee a 95% dose uniformity for whole body irradiation

-Only the RS 2000 has backscatter reduction to eliminate the lower energy photons from bouncing back into the gut of the animals and thus causing inconsistent dose response curves.


What makes the RS 2000 ideal for small animal research?

-95% Dose uniformity to all the animals in the filtered animal cage or the optional pie restrainers is superior to any other method of whole body ablation work.

-The RS 2000 is also designed to allow irradiation of mice in a filtered cage. We understand husbandry is an important part of the process so protecting the mice from the environment, especially with multiple users is very important.

-The .3mm of Cu filtration stops all low energy radiation, which can build up on the skin and create burns and lesions.

-In addition, the RS 2000 makes targeted tumor work simple and efficient allowing for variable dose rates and multiple animal exposures.


How is the RS 2000 installed?

The RS 2000 is delivered by crate and then rolled (its mounted on casters) into your facility. It is a “Plug & Play” install with on-board 100 L cooling water reservoir. It only requires 220 VAC +/- 10%, 50/60 Hz, single phase, 40 amps. Installation, calibration, dose mapping, and training is completed in less than one day.


How reliable is the RS 2000?

The RS 2000 consists of a power supply, radiation tube, control module, chassis, and heat exchanger. Rad Source offers 1, 2, and 3 year extended warranty programs.


Are there any down line disposal issues with the RS 2000?

No, unlike a nuclear isotope, the RS 2000 is an electronic device that is either on or off. When it is off, there is no radiation being emitted.


How does the cost of an RS 2000 compare to that of a gamma (cesium or cobalt) unit?

When delivery, licensing, related hazardous material shipping, and set-up costs of a radioisotope system are considered, the RS 2000 costs much less than a typical gamma unit.


What is the size of the irradiation field?

The radiation plane is in a cone shaped irradiation field and can be set at various levels from 12.39 cm (4.88”) to 35.50 cm (13.98”).


Do I need a lead lined room or secure access for the RS 2000?

No, the RS 2000 is completely self-shielded, needs no additional precautions, and is key operated for user security. Background scatter is lower than Federal and State guidelines.


Are there any floor loading or environmental concerns when using the RS 2000?

No, the RS 2000 is mounted on wheels and weighs less than 1500 lbs.


Do I need a Nuclear Site License or an Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) with the RS 2000?

No, the RS 2000 is licensed as a cabinet X-ray system and complies with CFR 21.1020.40 for x-ray devices. The X-ray tube is licensed with the appropriate State agencies just like any x-ray source.


How do dose rates compare to a gamma irradiator?

The RS 2000 was designed as a direct replacement for Cesium 137 research irradiators. The initial dose rate is set at approximately 1.5 Gy/min (varies minimally per unit).  This dose rate will not vary over time, whereas a gamma source begins to decay from the date of creation and thus requires recalculation of time frequently. The RS 2000 also allows the user to vary dose rate electronically or by varying Source to Object distance but remains constant unless changed by the user.


What is the dose uniformity of the RS 2000 and how does it compare to a gamma irradiator?

Each RS 2000 is calibrated at the factory for maximum uniformity and has 95%, or better uniformity, for an area of 7” x 11” (typical rearing cage) at 1 Gy per minute.


How is the RS 2000 similar to gamma irradiator?

Both use photons as an irradiation source, creating ionizing radiation. The energy of both is energy per unit volume with 1 Gy from Gamma equal to 1 Gy from X-ray.


Why we don’t offer a 320 kV irradiator for lab research?

Rad Source has specialty irradiators that can produce up to 1 MegaRad per hour.  (That is >150 Gy/min). But the RS 2000 was designed and validated for the Biological Research market’s typical applications: small animals, cell, and tissue work.

The beam profile (proprietary tube and filtering) of the RS 2000 is “Substantially equivalent to Cesium” for density one products and the RS 2000 has been successfully used for over 15 years by 160+ acclaimed research laboratories, hospitals and universities around the globe.

Higher kV (speed or penetration of the photons) will result in MUCH lower mA (number of photons to act on the product).  Watts must equal kV X mA so if you go up in kV the mA drops dramatically.

Example: 160 kV X 25 mA = 4 kW. For 320 kV at 4 kW = 12.5 mA X 320 kV. That is 50% less photons to produce the relative biological effect on the cells. High kV is great if you are irradiating engine blocks but not for small animals and cell work.


What does CDRH stands for?

CDRH stands for the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). Performance Standards for Ionizing Radiation Emitting Products can be found at CDRH 21CFR1020.40


How is the RS 2000 similar to gamma irradiator?

Both use photons as an irradiation source, creating ionizing radiation. The energy of both is energy per unit volume with 1 Gy from Gamma equal to 1 Gy from x-ray.


Is the RS 2000 a direct replacement for a gamma irradiator?

Yes, X-rays from the RS 2000 produce equivalent dose in density one products such as cells and small animals. The energy of the photons is lower; therefore the X-ray beam must be filtered correctly to shape the beam to produce equivalent depth uniformity.