General Questions

What are the dangers of using this tech?
  • Virtually none. x-ray is proven to be equivalent to isotope irradiation and sterilization without the hazardous waste, safety, and licensing issues.
  • Our irradiators are self-shielded in lead, which x-rays cannot penetrate through so the instrument does not emit radiation and users need not wear protective equipment.
  • You receive more radiation from taking a domestic flight, or lying outside in the sun for an hour than you do from using our equipment.
  • Additionally, the instrument comes with fail-safes and locking mechanisms, meaning it cannot be operated with the door open.
  • Since our technology uses x-ray instead of nuclear isotopes, when the instrument is turned off it is immediately off and there is no lingering radiation.
What are the specifications/configurations? Capacity?
  • Details of the 2 models are listed on the 2400 flyer (there is a 5L and 15L version, each with different DUR and # of canisters).
  • We cannot say what the capacity is, because each customer deals with a different insect (they are differentsizes, shapes, weights).
  • So instead we just say that one model can do 5L of product and the other can do 15L of product.
  • If the customer wants to know exactly how many insectscan fit in the machine I will need to do calculations based onspecies and life stage information.
  • We do know that the 5L model can fit roughly 20,000 Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae in it at one time, which is one of the most common mosquitoes that are worked with currently, but we are working on figuring out how many of the adult stage can fit.
What is the acquisition/delivery process like?
  • We tell the customer that we typically need between 6-8 weeks to build their unit and have it ready.
  • We can have it ready sooner if we get enough of a heads- up, though.
  • Delivery obviously is going vary based on where they are located but we tell them that we can easily ship to almost  anywhere in the world.

Do I need special licensing to own the RS 2400?

No, we are listed as a cabinet x-ray device manufacturer and the client does not need any special licenses for domestic purchases, they need only register their tube/emitter with the state (I think it’s free? Or very cheap).

What organizations use the RS 2400
  • USDA ARS, USDA APHIS, IAEA, Lee County Mosquito  Control District, etc.
  • We currently only have 2400’s in Florida, California, and Texas (and at HQ in GA, obviously).
  • We will have one in Washington very soon we will have one go to Harris County Texas, and one to University of Florida sometime in the next couple months they plan to order).
Why is x-ray better than gamma for SIT?
  • Significantly cheaper than gamma irradiators (but not cheap, just less expensive than traditional equipment).
  • You do not need to wear protective equipment when using the instrument, unlike gamma.
  • When the instrument is turned off, it is truly off, unlike gamma in which radiation lingers.
  • Our instrument is more compact and slightly mobile, unlike gamma. You do not need special licenses, like you do for gamma.
  • Nuclear isotopes decay slowly over time, so every time the researchers go to use the gamma instrument they have to perform calculations in order to make sure they administer the proper dose (x-ray does not decay/weaken, no calculation needs to be done just select what you want and push the button).
  • Lastly, x-ray is very low energy (unlike gamma) and better suited to radiate sensitive living organisms. The dose can be better controlled and the insects can be exposed to the radiation in a more delicate manner. It has also been theorized that less radiation is needed to fully sterilize insects when using x-ray as opposed to gamma (a theory that has been proven by Lee County for us but has not made its way into any publications yet).

What comes with a purchase? What else is needed?
  • Warranty – 12 Month Parts, Travel, and Labor warranty on unit less Quastar Emitter.
  • The lessor of 1 year or 2,400 operational hours Quastar Emitter warranty. Installation, on-site dose mapping, radiation survey and training included.
  • One preventative maintenance visit included.
  • *Requires external water chiller to be supplied by customer*.


Will it work for _____ insect?
  • This is a question that I will likely have to directly answer.
  • There is no definitive yes or no to this answer, it all has to do with the research and key information about the biology of the species.
  • This process does not work for all insects, it does not even work for most insects, but it works for many insects that are huge pests.
  • The most ideal insect candidates are typically flies/mosquitoes and moths. The website could maybe say, unsure if this method will work for your target pest?
Ventilation required or not?

Ventilation is required for the water chiller.

Generally we advise our customers to place the water chiller in a separate room that has good ventilation to be able to disperse the heat coming from the X-ray tube.

What does CDRH stands for?

CDRH stands for the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). Performance Standards for Ionizing Radiation Emitting Products can be found at CDRH 21CFR1020.40

What are the different interlocks provided for safety of products and personnel?

The RS 2400 is shielded very well. That said, should personnel attempt to open the X-ray door during operation, the unit will immediately fault and shut off.

Are you providing dosimeters for dosimetry?

We do not provide dosimeters for dosimetry.

We recommend using the Gafchromic film, generally HD 810

What about X-ray on power failure?

If there is a complete power failure the unit would shutoff and the onboard battery would retain the processing information for that cycle. We can modify the unit to have any additional power generation protection you desire.

What about X-ray on power failure?

If there is a complete power failure the unit would shutoff and the onboard battery would retain the processing information for that cycle. We can modify the unit to have any additional power generation protection you desire.

How do you address cooling water flow and its temperature control?

 The water that cools the X-ray tube is provided by an external water chilling unit. It is temperature controlled and if it exceeds an identified temperature then the unit will fault and shut off to keep from damaging itself.

What is the typical cycle time?

The typical cycle time is based on your target dose.

Assuming you have product that is a density of 0.57 g/ml, being processed in a 11 cm diameter canister, 19 cm in height, with a dose uniformity ratio (DUR) of 1.3, the dose would be somewhere around 20 Gy per minute.

Using this information, if your total target dose is 200 Gy, then it would take 10 minutes to deliver your dose